Sources


Histamine Intolerance

Source: SIGHI: Swiss Interest Group Histamine Intolerance

Score indicates each food's presumed compatibility with a histamine intolerance diet based on potential histamine content, histamine liberators, blocking of DAO (enzyme that helps break down histamines) and other relevant factors. Ratings range from 0 (well tolerated) to 3 (very poorly tolerated; severe symptoms). Each food listed is assumed to have no additives.

More Resources
https://www.histaminintoleranz.ch/downloads/SIGHI-Leaflet_HistamineEliminationDiet.pdf

Gluten

Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Gluten Cross-Reactors

Source: Dr. Sarah Ballantyne's interpretation of Vojdani & Tarash (2013)

Some foods may cross-react with gluten while others may be contaminated with gluten. Look for certified gluten-free versions of foods that may share equipment with gluten if you are extremely sensitive.

More Resources
https://paleofoundation.com/19-gluten-cross-reactive-foods/

FODMAPs

Source: Monash University

Monash University has a smart phone app called FODMAP (cost is $8) which maintains the latest list. Note that FODMAP ratings are based on serving size. Low FODMAP diets are sometimes used for SIBO or IBS.

Lectins

Source: Dr. Steven Gundry

Dr. Steven Gundry's work is controversial, but his lectin list is the most conservative and other experts in autoimmunity like Dr. Datis Kharrazian also endorse a lectin-free elimination trial. Several cooking techniques (e.g., soaking, sprouting, pressure-cooking, roasting) can greatly reduce lectins.

More Resources
https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/anti-nutrients/lectins/

Oxalates

Source: U. Chicago Kidney Stone Evaluation and Treatment Program

U. Chicago Kidney Stone Evaluation and Treatment Program, who had experts update the older oxalate list provided by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Nutrition department. Oxalate ratings are based on a typical serving size. MCAS patients sometimes react to oxalates.

More Resources
https://regepi.bwh.harvard.edu/health/Oxalate/files

Paleo Autoimmune Protocol (Paleo AIP)

Source: Dr. Sarah Ballantyne at thepaleomom.com

List compiled by Dr. Ballantyne, a scientist and autoimmune patient herself.

Nightshades

Source: Dr. Sarah Ballantyne at thepaleomom.com

Tree Nuts

Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Low Fermentation (SIBO) Diet

Source: Dr. Mark Pimentel's SIBO lab at Cedars Sinai Medical Center

A less restrictive approach than the low-FODMAP diet, preferred by top SIBO researcher and physician Dr. Mark Pimentel. This diet also recommends waiting 4+ hours before meals (to allow time for the intestinal cleaning wave), not eating too close to bedtime, and not eating too much fiber.

Salicylates

Source: Skypala et al. (2015); Swain et al. (1985); Swain, Soutter & Loblay (2009).

Different studies have given conflicting results, so we prioritized the 2015 review article, and supplemented with Swain et al. (2009) and Swain et al. (1985), taking the most recent rating for each food.

More Resources
https://www.slhd.nsw.gov.au/rpa/allergy/research/salicylatesinfoods.pdf
https://www.wholechildonline.com/mt-content/uploads/2016/02/handbook-p1-33.pdf

Natural glutamates (MSG)

Source: Swain A, Soutter V, Loblay R (2009). RPAH Food Elimination Handbook. Allergy Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital.

Anti-inflammatory foods

Source: Byrd DA, Judd SE, Flanders WD, Hartman TJ, Fedirko V, Bostick RM. Development and Validation of Novel Dietary and Lifestyle Inflammation Scores. J Nutr. 2019 Dec 1;149(12):2206-2218. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz165. PMID: 31373368; PMCID: PMC6887697.

Inflammation scores by Emory University School of Public Health

Six-Food Elimination Diet for EoE (Eosinophilic Esophagitis)

Source: Mayo Clinic

Temporary trial elimination of eggs, soy, nuts, fish/shellfish, wheat and dairy